Spock is a Micromass dual inlet mass spectrometer that measures the stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in atmospheric CO2, primarily from flasks and standard cylinders with the NOAA CMDL Cooperative Air Sampling Network. CO2 is extracted from an air sample by pulling the air through a water trap and into a liquid nitrogen trap. The sample is then heated to expand into the sample bellows of the mass spectrometer. The sample and reference gas are then iteratively allowed into the source where they are ionized, repelled down the flight tube, and separated by isotopic mass. Reliable measurements of CO2 isotopes depends on careful data crunching and quality controls—please contact us if you'd like more information on our procedures.
T'Pol is a GV Isoprime dual inlet mass spectrometer dedicated to running isotopes of CO2 from programmable flask packages. These collect air from aircraft and from tall towers, allowing for sampling along vertical gradients. The sample extraction is almost identical to Spock: CO2 is cryogenically separated from air and expanded into the sample bellows for dual inlet analysis against a CO2 reference gas. Careful monitoring ensures that different instruments measure samples with high accuracy and precision.
Picard is also a GV Isoprime with a similar extraction system as T'Pol and Spock. Although it can measure samples from flasks and programmable flask packages, it is primarily devoted to measuring air from calibration cylinders. Picard has the capacity to measure CO2 extracted from carbonates, as this is the reference material for CO2 isotopes.
Troi measures carbon isotopes of methane. Since there is not enough methane in a network flask to measure using dual inlet techniques, we rely on continuous flow measurements, where the sample moves on a stream of helium gas. Methane and other gases are frozen on a pre-concentrator of hayesep-D, cryo-focused, and separated on a GC column. The CH4 is combusted to CO2, and then the sample is "sniffed" from an open split into the mass spectrometer.
Crusher will soon measure hydrogen isotopes of methane. This measurement is challenging due to the high-temperature pyrolysis furnace which converts CH4 to H2 gas.
Julian and Phlox are Picarro cavity ring-down mass spectrometers dedicated to measuring hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of water from discreet samples.
Kes measures water isotopes from ice-cores. Kes represents is a breakthrough in our ability to obtain high resolution records from ice cores. As the ice is melted, peristaltic pumps move the water into a de-bubbler, splitter (where a portion of the sample is archived), a nebulizer, then vaporized and measured by CRMS.