Research Publications

Publications by Diane M. McKnight

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Kociolek, J. P., Kopalová, K., Hamsher, S. E., Tyler Kohler, Van de Vijver, B., Convery, P., Diane M. McKnight 2017: Freshwater diatom biogeography and the genus Luticola: an extreme case of endemism in Antarctica. Polar Biology, 40(6): 1185-1196. DOI: 10.1007/s00300-017-2090-7

Michael Gooseff, Barrett, J. E., Adams, B. J., Doran, P. T., Andrew G. Fountain, Lyons, W. B., Diane M. McKnight, Priscu, J. C., Sokol, E. R., Takacs-Vesbach, C., Vandegehuchte, M. L., Virginia, R. A., Wall, D. H. 2017: Decadal ecosystem response to an anomalous melt season in a polar desert in Antarctica. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 1: 1334-1338. DOI: 10.1038/s41559-017-0253-0

Garrett RueNathan RockRachel Gabor, Pitlick, J., Tfaily, M.Diane M. McKnight 2017: Concentration-discharge relationships during an extreme event: Contrasting behavior of solutes and changes to chemical quality of dissolved organic material in the Boulder Creek Watershed during the September 2013 flood. Special section, "Concentration-Discharge Relations in the Critical Zone." Water Resources Research, 53(7): 5276-5297. DOI: 10.1002/2016WR019708

Diane M. McKnight 2017: Debates—Hypothesis testing in hydrology: A view from the field: The value of hydrologic hypotheses in designing field studies and interpreting the results to advance hydrology. Water Resources Research, 53(3): 1779-1783. DOI: 10.1002/2016WR020050

Smith, H. J., Foster, R. A., Diane M. McKnight, Lisle, J. T., Littmann, S., Kuypers, M. M. M., Foreman, C. M. 2017: Microbial formation of labile organic carbon in Antarctic glacial environments. Nature Geoscience, 10(5): 356-359. DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2925

Alia Lauren Khan, Dierssen, H., Schwarz, J. P., Schmitt, C., Chlus, A., Hermanson, M., Painter, T. H., Diane M. McKnight 2017: Impacts of coal dust from an active mine on the spectral reflectance of Arctic surface snow in Svalbard, Norway. Journal of Geophysical Research—Atmospheres, 22(3): 1767-1778. DOI: 10.1002/2016JD025757

Lyons, W. B., Welch, K. A., Levy, J. S., Andrew G. FountainDiane M. McKnight 2016: Solute and sediment fluxes from rivers and streams in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. In Beylich, A. A., Dixon, J. C., and Zwolinski, Z. (eds.), Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Undisturbed Cold Environments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 260-271. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781107705791

Van Horn, D. J., Wolf, C. R., Colman, D. R., Jiang, X., Tyler KohlerDiane M. McKnightLee Stanish, Yazzie, T., Takacs-Vesbach, C. D. 2016: Patterns of bacterial biodiversity in the glacial meltwater streams of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 92(10): fiw148. DOI: 10.1093/femsec/fiw148

Matt Miller, Boyer, E. W., Diane M. McKnight, Brown, M. G., Rachel Gabor, Hunsaker, C. T., Iavorivska, L., Inamdar, S., Johnson, D. W., Kaplan, L. A., Lin, H., McDowell, W. H., Perdrial, J. N. 2016: Variation of organic matter quantity and quality in streams at Critical Zone Observatory watersheds. Water Resources Research, 52(10): 8202-8216. DOI: 10.1002/2016WR018970

Tyler Kohler, Van Horn, D. J., Darling, J. P., Takacs-Vesbach, C. D., Diane M. McKnight 2016: Nutrient treatments alter microbial mat colonization in two glacial meltwater streams from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 92(4): fiw049. DOI: 10.1093/femsec/fiw049

Kaelin Cawley, Murray, A. E., Doran, P. T., Kenig, F., Stubbins, A., Chen, H., Hatcher, P. G., Diane M. McKnight 2016: Characterization of dissolved organic material in the interstitial brine of Lake Vida, Antarctica. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 183: 63-78. DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2016.03.023

Michael Gooseff, Van Horn, D., Sudman, Z., Diane M. McKnight, Welch, K. A., Lyons, W. B. 2016: Stream biogeochemical and suspended sediment responses to permafrost degradation in stream banks in Taylor Valley, Antarctica. Biogeosciences, 13(6): 1723-1732. DOI: 10.5194/bg-13-1723-2016

Devin CastendykDiane M. McKnight, Welch, K., Niebuhr, S.,  2015: Pressure-driven, shoreline currents in a perennially ice-covered, pro-glacial lake in Antarctica, identified from a LiCl tracer injected into a pro-glacial stream. Hydrological Processes, 29(9): 2212-2231. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.10352

Creed, I. F., Diane M. McKnight, Pellerin, B. A., Green, M. B., Bergamaschi, B. A., Aiken, G. R., Burns, D. A., Findlay, S. E. G., Shanley, J. B., Striegl, R. G. 2015: The river as a chemostat: Fresh perspectives on dissolved organic matter flowing down the river continuum. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 72(8): 1272-1285. DOI: 10.1139/cjfas-2014-0400

Natalie Mladenov, Zheng, Y., Simone, B., Bilinski, T. M., Diane M. McKnight, Nemergut, D. R., Radloff, K. A., Rahman, M. M., Ahmed, K. M. 2015: Dissolved organic matter quality in a shallow aquifer of Bangladesh: Implications for arsenic mobility. Environmental Science & Technology, 49(18): 10815-10824. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b01962

Drake, T. W., Wickland, K. P., Spencer, R. G. M., Diane M. McKnight, Striegl, R. G. 2015: Ancient low-molecular-weight organic acids in permafrost fuel rapid carbon dioxide production upon thaw. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(45): 13946-13951. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1511705112

Diane M. McKnightKaren Cozzetto, Cullis, J. D. S., Michael Gooseff, , Koch, J. C., Lyons, W. B., Neupauer, R., Wlostowski, A. 2015: Potential for real-time understanding of coupled hydrologic and biogeochemical processes in stream ecosystems: Future integration of telemetered data with process models for glacial meltwater streams. Water Resources Research, 51(8): 6725-6738. DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017618

Cullis, J. D. S., Lee StanishDiane M. McKnight 2014: Diel flow pulses drive particulate organic matter transport from microbial mats in a glacial meltwater stream in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Water Resources Research, 50(1): 86-97. DOI: 10.1002/2013WR014061

Rachel Gabor, Baker, A., Diane M. McKnightMatt Miller 2014: Fluorescence indices and their interpretation. In Coble, P., Lead, J., Baker, A., Reynolds, D., and Spencer, R. G. M. (eds.), Aquatic Organic Matter Fluorescence. Cambridge University Press, 303-338. ISBN 9780521764612

Natalie Mladenov, Wolski, P., Hettiarachchi, G. M., Murray-Hudson, M., Enriquez, H., Damaraju, S., Galkaduwa, M., Diane M. McKnight, Masamba, W. 2014: Abiotic and biotic factors influencing the mobility of arsenic in groundwater of a through-flow island in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of Hydrology, 518(SI part C): 326-341. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.09.026

Smith, K. S., Ranville, J. F., Lesher, E. K., Diedrich, D. J., Diane M. McKnight, Sofield, R. M. 2014: Fractionation of fulvic acid by iron and aluminum oxides: Influence on copper toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(20): 11934-11943. DOI: 10.1021/es502243m

Karen Cozzetto, Bencala, K. E., Gooseff, M. N., Diane M. McKnight 2013: The influence of stream thermal regimes and preferential flow paths on hyporheic exchange in a glacial meltwater stream. Water Resources Research, 49: 1-18. DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20410

Cawley, K. M., Koerfer, V., Diane M. McKnight 2013: The role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality in the growth enhancement of Alexandrium fundyense (Dinophyceae) in laboratory culture. Journal of Phycology, 49(3): 546-554. DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12063

Lyons, W. B., Leslie, D. L., Harmon, R. S., Neumann, K., Welch, K. A., Bisson, K. M., Diane M. McKnight 2013: The carbon stable isotope biogeochemistry of streams, Taylor Valley, Antarctica. Applied Geochemistry, 32(SI): 26-36. DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2012.08.019

Foreman, C. M., Cory, R. M., Morris, C. E., SanClements, M. D., Smith, H. J., Lisle, J. T., Miller, P. L., Chin, Y.-P., Diane M. McKnight 2013: Microbial growth under humic-free conditions in a supraglacial stream system on the Cotton Glacier, Antarctica. Environmental Research Letters, 8(3): 035022. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/035022

Crouch, C., Diane M. McKnight, Todd, A. S. 2013: Quantifying sources of increasing zinc from acid rock drainage in an alpine catchment under a changing hydrologic regime. Hydrological Processes, 27(5): 721-733. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9650

Koch, J. C., Runkel, R. L., Striegl, R., Diane M. McKnight 2013: Hydrologic controls on the transport and cycling of carbon and nitrogen in a boreal catchment underlain by continuous permafrost. Journal of Geophysical Research—Biogeosciences, 118(2): 698–712. DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20058

Koch, J. C., Ewing, S. A., Striegl, R., Diane M. McKnight 2013: Rapid runoff via shallow throughflow and deeper preferential flow in a boreal catchment underlain by frozen silt (Alaska, USA). Hydrogeology Journal, 21(1): 93-106. DOI: 10.1007/s10040-012-0934-3

Beggs, K. M. H., Billica, J. A., Korak, J. A., Rosario-Ortiz, F. L., Diane M. McKnight, Summers, R. S. 2013: Spectral evaluation of watershed DOM and DBP precursors. Journal of the American Water Works Association, 105(4): E173-E188. DOI: 10.5942/jawwa.2013.105.0063

Dieser, M., Foreman, C. M., , Lisle, J. T., Greenwood, M., Laybourn-Parry, J., Miller, P. L., Chin, Y.-P., Diane M. McKnight 2013: Physicochemical and biological dynamics in a coastal Antarctic lake as it transitions from frozen to open water. Antarctic Science, 25(5): 663-675. DOI: 10.1017/S0954102013000102

Cawley, K. M., Diane M. McKnight, Miller, P., Cory, R., Fimmen, R. L., Guerard, J., Dieser, M., , Chin, Y.-P., Foreman, C. 2013: Characterization of fulvic acid fractions of dissolved organic matter during ice-out in a hyper-eutrophic, coastal pond in Antarctica. Environmental Research Letters, 8(4): 045015. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/045015

D'Andrilli, J., Foreman, C. M., Marshall, A. G., Diane M. McKnight 2013: Characterization of IHSS Pony Lake fulvic acid dissolved organic matter by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy. Organic Geochemistry, 65: 19-28. DOI: 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2013.09.013

Terry Bilinski, Zheng, Y., Simone, B., Radloff, K. A., Natalie Mladenov, González, A., Knights, D., Siu, H. C., Rahman, M., Ahmed, K. M., Diane M. McKnight, Nemergut, D. R. 2012: Carbon, metals and grain size correlate with bacterial community structure in sediments of a high arsenic aquifer. Frontiers in Terrestrial Microbiology, 3: 82. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2012.00082

Todd, A., Manning, A. H., Verplanck, P. L., Crouch, C., Diane M. McKnight, Dunham, R. 2012: Climate-change-driven deterioration of water quality in a mineralized watershed. Environmental Science & Technology, 46(17): 9324-9332. DOI: 10.1021/es3020056

Lee StanishTyler Kohler, Esposito, R. M. M., Simmons, B. L., Nielsen, U. N., Wall, D. H., Nemergut, D. R., Diane M. McKnight 2012: Extreme streams: Flow intermittency as a control on diatom communities in meltwater streams in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 69(8): 1405-1419. DOI: 10.1139/f2012-022

Grannas, A. M., Cory, R. M., Miller, P. L., Chin, Y.-P., Diane M. McKnight 2012: The role of dissolved organic matter in arctic surface waters in the photolysis of hexachlorobenzene and lindane. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 117: G01003. DOI: 10.1029/2010JG001518

Mike SanClements, Oelsner, G. P., Diane M. McKnight, Stoddard, J. L., Nelson, S. J. 2012: New insights into the source of decadal increases of dissolved organic matter in acid-sensitive lakes of the northeastern United States. Environmental Science & Technology, 46(6): 3212-3219. DOI: 10.1021/es204321x

Nielsen, U. N., Wall, D. H., Adams, B. J., Virginia, R. A., Ball, B. A., Gooseff, M. N., Diane M. McKnight 2012: The ecology of pulse events: Insights from an extreme climatic event in a polar desert ecosystem. Ecosphere, 3(2): article 17. DOI: 10.1890/ES11-00325.1

Cawley, K. M., Butler, K. D., Aiken, G. R., Larsen, L. G., Huntington, T. G., Diane M. McKnight 2012: Identifying fluorescent pulp mill effluent in the Gulf of Maine and its watershed. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64(8): 1678-1687. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.05.040

Murray, A. E., Kenig, F., Fritsen, C. H., McKay, C. P., Cawley, K., Edwards, R., Kuhn, E., Diane M. McKnight, Ostrom, N. E., Peng, V., Ponce, A., Priscu, J. C., Samarkin, V., Townsend, A. T., Wagh, P., Young, S. A., Yung, P. T., Doran, P. T. 2012: Microbial life at −13 °C in the brine of an ice-sealed Antarctic lake. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(50): 20626-20631. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1208607109

Fang, X., Mao, J., Cory, R. M., Diane M. McKnightSchmidt-Rohr, K. 2011: 15N and 13C{14N} NMR investigation of the major nitrogen-containing segment in an aquatic fulvic acid: Evidence for a hydantoin derivative. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, 49(12): 775-780. DOI: 10.1002/mrc.2816

Lee Stanish, Nemergut, D. R., Diane M. McKnight 2011: Hydrologic processes influence diatom community composition in Dry Valley streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 30(4): 1057-1073. DOI: 10.1899/11-008.1

Foreman, C. M., Dieser, M., Greenwood, M., Cory, R. M., Laybourn-Parry, J., Lisle, J. T., , Miller, P. L., Chin, Y., Diane M. McKnight 2011: When a habitat freezes solid: Microorganisms over-winter within the ice column of a coastal Antarctic lake. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 76(3): 401 412. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2011.01061.x

Gooseff, M. N., Diane M. McKnight, Doran, P., Andrew G. Fountain, Lyons, W. B. 2011: Hydrological connectivity of the landscape of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Antarctica Geography Compass, 5(9): 666 681.

Koch, J. C., Diane M. McKnight, Neupauer, R. M. 2011: Simulating unsteady flow, anabranching, and hyporheic dynamics in a glacial meltwater stream using a coupled surface water routing and groundwater flow model. Water Resources Research, 47: W05530, DOI: 10.1029/2010WR009508

Sarah A. SpauldingDiane M. McKnightLee Stanish, Van de Vijver, B., Hodgson, D. 2010: Diatoms as indicators of environmental change in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic freshwaters. In Smol, J. and Stoermer, E. F. (eds.), The Diatoms: Applications for the Environmental and Earth Sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press, 267-286.

Cory, R. M., Matt MillerDiane M. McKnight, Guerard, J. J., Miller, P. L. 2010: Effect of instrument-specific response on the analysis of fulvic acid fluorescence spectra. Limnology and Oceanography Methods, 8: 67-78.

Deppe, M., Knorr, K.-H., Diane M. McKnight, Blodau, C. 2010: Effects of short-term drying and irrigation on CO2 and CH4 production and emission from mesocosms of a northern bog and an alpine fen. Biogeochemistry, 100(1-3): 89 103, DOI: 10.1007/s10533-010-9406-9

Deppe, M., Diane M. McKnight, Blodau, C. 2010: Effects of short-term drying and irrigation on electron flow in mesocosms of a northern bog and an alpine fen. Environmental Science and Technology, 44(1): 80 86, DOI: 10.1021/es901669z

Doran, P. T., Lyons, W. B., Diane M. McKnight 2010: Life in Antarctic Deserts and Other Cold Dry Environments: Astrobiological Analogues. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gooseff, M. N., Diane M. McKnight, Carr, M. H., Baeseman, J. L. 2010: Analogue stream hydrologic and ecosystem functions. In Doran, P. T., Lyons, W. B., and McKnight, D. M. (eds.), 2010: Life in Antarctic Deserts and Other Cold Dry Environments: Astrobiological Analogues. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Herbei, R., Lyons, W. B., Laybourn-Parry, J., Gardner, C., Priscu, J. C., Diane M. McKnight 2010: Physiochemical properties influencing biomass abundance and primary production in Lake Hoare, Antarctica. Ecological Modelling, 221(8): 1184 1193, DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2009.12.015

Koch, J. C., Diane M. McKnight, Baeseman, J. L. 2010: Effect of unsteady flow on nitrate loss in an oligotrophic, glacial meltwater stream. Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences, 115: G01001, DOI: 10.1029/2009JG001030

Diane M. McKnight 2010: Overcoming ecophobia : fostering environmental empathy through narrative in children s science literature. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 8(6): E10 E15, DOI: 10.1890/100041

Matt MillerDiane M. McKnight 2010: Comparison of seasonal changes in fluorescent dissolved organic matter among aquatic lake and stream sites in the Green Lakes Valley. Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences, 115: article G00F12. DOI: 10.1029/2009JG000985

Pace, M. L., Hampton, S. E., Limburg, K. E., Bennett, E. M., Cook, E. M., Davis, A. E., Grove, J. M., Kaneshiro, K. Y., LaDeau, S. L., Likens, G. E., Diane M. McKnight, Richardson, D. C., Strayer, D. L. 2010: Communicating with the public: opportunities and rewards for individual ecologists. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 8(6): 292 298, DOI: 10.1890/090168

Welch, K. A., Lyons, W. B., Whisner, C., Gardner, C. B., Gooseff, M. N., Diane M. McKnight, Priscu, J. C. 2010: Spatial variations in the geochemistry of glacial meltwater streams in the Taylor Valley, Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 22(6) Spec. Issue: 662 672, DOI: 10.1017/S0954102010000702

Beggs, K. M. H., Summers, R. S., Diane M. McKnight 2009: Characterizing chlorine oxidation of dissolved organic matter and disinfection by-product formation with fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis. Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences, 114: G04001, DOI: 10.1029/2009JG001009

Matt MillerDiane M. McKnight, Chapra, S. C., Mark Williams 2009: A model of degradation and production of three pools of dissolved organic matter in an alpine lake. Limnology and Oceanography, 54(6): 2213-2227.

Natalie Mladenov, Lpez-Ramos, J., Diane M. McKnight, Reche, I. 2009: Alpine lake optical properties as sentinels of dust deposition and global change. Limnology and Oceanography, 54(6) Part 2: 2386 2400.

Murray, A. E., Fritsen, C. H., Kenig, F., McKay, C. M., Diane M. McKnight, Cawley, K., Doran, P. T. 2009: Life in the ice cover and underlying cold brines of Lake Vida, Antarctica. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73(13) Suppl. S: A922.

Simmons, B. L., Adams, B. J., Diane M. McKnight, Wall, D. H. 2009: Relationships between invertebrate habitat preference, stream flow and diel temperature fluctuation in an Antarctic meltwater stream. Journal of Nematology, 41(4): 378 379.

Tranvik, L. J., Downing, J. A., Cotner, J. B., Loiselle, S. A., Striegl, R. G., Ballatore, T. J., Dillon, P., Finlay, K., Fortino, K., Knoll, L. B., Kortelainen, P. L., Kutser, T., Larsen, S., Laurion, I., Leech, D. M., McCallister, S. L., Diane M. McKnight, Melack, J. M., Overholt, E., Porter, J. A., Prairie, Y., Renwick, W. H., Roland, F., Sherman, B. S., Schindler, D. W., Sobek, S., Tremblay, A., Vanni, M. J., Verschoor, A. M., von Wachenfeldt, E., Weyhenmeyer, G. A. 2009: Lakes and reservoirs as regulators of carbon cycling and climate. Limnology and Oceanography, 54(6) Part 2: 2298 2314.

Gardner, E. M., Diane M. McKnight, Lewis, W. M., Matt Miller 2008: Effects of nutrient enrichment on phytoplankton in an alpine lake, Colorado, U.S.A. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 40(1): 55-64.

Jaffe, R., Diane M. McKnight, Maie, N., Cory, R., McDowell, W. H., Campbell, J. L. 2008: Spatial and temporal variations in DOM composition in ecosystems: Theimportance of long-term monitoring of optical properties. Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences, 113(G4): G04032. DOI: 10.1029/2008JG000683

Diane M. McKnight, Gooseff, M. N., Vincent, W. F., Peterson, B. J. 2008: High latitude rivers and streams. In Vincent, W. F. and Labourn-Parry, J. (eds.), Polar Lakes and Rivers: Limnology of Arctic and Antarctic Aquatic Ecosystems. Oxford University Press, 83 98.

Natalie Mladenov, Huntsman-Mapila, P., Wolski, P., Masamba, W. R. L., Diane M. McKnight 2008: Dissolved organic matter accumulation, reactivity, and redox state in groundwater of a recharge wetland. Wetlands,28(3): 747 759.

Diane M. McKnight, Tate, C. M., Edmund Andrews, Niyogi, D. K., Karen Cozzetto, Welch, K., Lyons, W. B., Capone, D. G. 2007: Reactivation of a cryptobiotic stream ecosystem in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: A long-term geomorphological experiment. Geomorphology, 89(1-2): 186-204.

Barrett, J. E., Virginia, R. A., Lyons, W. B., Diane M. McKnight, Priscu, J. C., Doran, P. T., Andrew G. Fountain, Wall, D. H., Moorhead, D. L. 2007: Biogeochemical stoichiometry of Antarctic Dry Valley ecosystems. Journal of Geophysical Research—Biogeosciences, 112(G1): G01010. DOI: 10.1029/2005JG000141

Cory, R. M., Diane M. McKnight, Chin, Y., Miller, P.,  2007: Chemical characteristics of fulvic acids from Arctic surface waters: Microbial contributions and photochemical transformations. Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences, 112(G4): G04S51. DOI: 10.1029/2006JG000343

Bade, D. L., Carpenter, S. R., Cole, J. J., Pace, M. L., Kritzberg, E., Van de Bogert, M. C., Cory, R. M., Diane M. McKnight 2007: Sources and fates of dissolved organic carbon in lakes as determined by whole-lake carbon isotope additions. Biogeochemistry, 84(2): 115 129.

Brooks, M. L., Diane M. McKnight, Clements, W. 2007: Photochemical control of copper complexation by dissolved organic matter in Rocky Mountain Streams, Colorado USA. Limnology and Oceanography, 52(2): 766 779.