Research Publications

Publications by Gary Clow

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Gary Clow 2018: CVPM 1.1: A flexible heat-transfer modeling system for permafrost. Geoscientific Model Development, 11(12): 4889-4908. DOI: 10.5194/gmd-11-4889-2018

Cuffey, K. M., Gary Clow, Steig, E. J., Buizert, C., Fudge, T. J., Koutnik, M., Waddington, E. D., Alley, R. B., Severinghaus, J. P. 2016: Deglacial temperature history of West Antarctica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(50): 14,249-14,254. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1609132113

Urban, F. E., Gary Clow 2020: DOI/GTN-P climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998–2017. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1092 (ver. 1.1): 71 p. [Supersedes USGS Data Series 1021]. DOI:

Kang Wang, Jafarov, E., Irina Overeem, Romanovsky, V., Schaefer, K., Gary Clow, Urban, F., Cable, W., Mark Piper, Schwalm, C., Zhang, T., Kholodov, A., Sousanes, P., Loso, M., Hill, K. 2018: A synthesis dataset of permafrost-affected soil thermal conditions for Alaska, USA. Earth System Science Data, 10: 2311-2328. DOI: 10.5194/essd-10-2311-2018

Kang Wang, Zhang, T., Zhang, X., Gary Clow, Jafarov, E. E., Irina Overeem, Romanovsky, V., Peng, X., Cao, B. 2017: Continuously amplified warming in the Alaskan Arctic: Implications for estimating global warming hiatus. Geophysical Research Letters, 44(17): 9029-9038. DOI: 10.1002/2017GL074232

Orsi, A. J., Kawamura, K., Masson-Delmotte, V., Fettweis, X., Box, J. E., Dahl-Jensen, D., Gary Clow, Landais, A., Severinghaus, J. P. 2017: The recent warming trend in North Greenland. Geophysical Research Letters, 44(12): 6235-6243. DOI: 10.1002/2016GL072212

Urban, F. E., Gary Clow 2017: DOI/GTN-P climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998-2015. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1021, 546 pp. DOI: 10.3133/ds1021

Urban, F. E., Gary Clow 2016: DOI/GTN-P climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998-2014. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 977. DOI: 10.3133/ds977

MacGregor, J. A., Fahnestock, M. A., Catania, G. A., Aschwanden, A., Gary Clow, Colgan, W. T., Gogineni, S. P., Morlighem, M., Nowicki, S. M. J., Paden, J. D., Price, S. F., Seroussi, H. 2016: A synthesis of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Journal of Geophysical Research—Earth Surface, 121(7): 1328-1350. DOI: 10.1002/2015JF003803

Gary Clow 2015: A Green’s function approach for assessing the thermal disturbance caused by drilling deep boreholes in rock or ice. Geophysical Journal International, 203(3): 1877-1895. DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggv415

MacGregor, J. A., Li, J., Paden, J. D., Catania, G. A., Gary Clow, Fahnestock, M. A., Gogineni, S. P., Grimm, R. E., Morlighem, M. Nandi, S., Seroussi, H., Stillman, D. E. 2015: Radar attenuation and temperature within the Greenland Ice Sheet. Journal of Geophysical Research—Earth Surface, 120(6): 983-1008. DOI: 10.1002/2014JF003418

Buizert, C., Cuffey, K. M., Severinghaus, J. P., Baggenstos, D., Fudge, T. J., Steig, E. J., Markle, B. R., Winstrup, M., Rhodes, R. H., Brook, E. J., Sowers, T. A., Gary Clow, Cheng, H., Edwards, R. L., Sigl, M., McConnell, J. R., Taylor, K. C. 2015: The WAIS Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology – Part 1: Methane synchronization (68–31 ka BP) and the gas age–ice age difference. Climate of the Past, 11: 153-173. DOI: 10.5194/cp-11-153-2015

Gary Clow 2015: Radial Green’s functions used to correct borehole temperature measurements for the thermal disturbance caused by drilling. Dataset. Boulder, Colorado: UCAR/NCAR, CISL, Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS). DOI: 10.5065/D64F1NS6

Gary Clow 2014: Temperature data acquired from the DOI/GTN-P Deep Borehole Array on the Arctic Slope of Alaska, 1973-2013. Earth System Science Data, 6: 201-218. DOI: 10.5194/essd-6-201-2014

Urban, F. E., Gary Clow 2014: DOI/GTN-P climate and active-layer data acquired in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998–2013. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 892. DOI: 10.3133/ds892

Gary Clow 2013: USGS permafrost temperatures acquired from the DOI/GTN-P Deep Borehole Array in arctic Alaska, 1973-continuing. Dataset. Boulder, Colorado: UCAR/NCAR, CISL, Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS). DOI: 10.5065/D6N014HK

Urban, F. E., Gary Clow 2013: Air temperature, wind speed, and wind direction in the National Petroleum Reserve: Alaska and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 1998-2011. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2013-1063.

Muto, A., Scambos, T. A., Steffen, K., Slater, A. G., Gary Clow 2011: Recent surface temperature trends in the interior of East Antarctica from borehole firn temperature measurements and geophysical inverse methods. Geophysical Research Letters, 38(15): L15502. DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048086

Gary Clow, DeGange, A. R., Derksen, D. V., Zimmerman, C. E. 2011: Climate change considerations. In Holland-Bartels, L. and Pierce, B. (eds.), An Evaluation of the Science Needs to Inform Decisions on Outer Continental Shelf Energy Development in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1370, pp. 81-108.

Wobus, C., Anderson, R., Irina Overeem, Matell, N., Gary Clow, Urban, F. 2011: Thermal erosion of a permafrost coastline: Improving process-based models using time-lapse photography. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 43(3): 474 484, DOI: 10.1657/1938-4246-43.3.474

Albert, M. R., Bentley, C., Twickler, M., Saltzman, E., Anandakrishman, S., Bay, R., Brook, E., Gary Clow, Conway, H., Cuffey, K., Dahl-Jensen, D., Kreutz, K., Mikucki, J., Powell, R. 2010: Long-range science plan 2010-2020. Ice Drilling Program Office, 31 pp.

Bender, M. L., Burgess, E., Alley, R. B., Barnett, B., Gary Clow 2010: On the nature of the dirty ice at the bottom of the GISP2 ice core. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 299(3-4): 466 473, DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2010.09.033

Smith, S. L., Romanovsky, V. E., Lewkowicz, A. G., Burn, C. R., Allard, M., Gary Clow, Yoshikawa, K., Throop, J. 2010: Thermal state of permafrost in North America: A contribution to the International Polar Year. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 21(2) Spec. Issue: 117 135, DOI: 10.1002/ppp.690

Schaaf, C. B. and others, including, Gary Clow 2008: Terrestrial essential climate variables for climate change assessment, mitigation and adaptation. GTOS 52, Global Terrestrial Observing System. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, 42 pp.

Gary Clow 2008: USGS polar temperature logging system, description and measurement uncertainties. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 2 E3.

MacGregor J. A., Winebrenner D. P., Conway H., Matsuoka, K., Mayewski, P. A., Gary Clow 2007: Modeling englacial radar attenuation at Siple Dome, West Antarctica, using ice chemistry and temperature data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112: F03008. DOI: 10.1029/2006JF000717

Bay, R. C., Bramall, N. E., Price, P. B., Gary Clow, Hawley, R. L., Udisti, R., Castellano, E. 2006: Globally synchronous ice core volcanic tracers and abrupt cooling during the last glacial period. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 111 (D11): article D11108.

Doran, P. T., Priscu, J. C., Lyons, W. B., Walsh, J. E., Andrew G. FountainDiane M. McKnight, Moorhead, D. L., Virginia, R. A., Wall, D. H., Gary Clow, Fritsen, C. H., McKay, C. P., Parsons, A. N. 2005: Comment on "El Nino suppresses Antarctic warming" by N. Bertler et al. Geophysical Research Letters, 32(7): L07706.

MacKinnon, D. J., Gary Clow, Tigges, R. K., Richard Reynolds, Chavez, P. S. 2004: Comparison of aerodynamically and model-derived roughness lengths (zo) over diverse surfaces, central Mojave Desert, California, USA. Geomorphology, 63(1-2): 103-113.

Tulaczyk, S., Gary Clow, Elliott, D. H., Powell, R. D., Priscu, J. C. 2003: Workshop advances interdisciplinary polar science and fast ice sheet drilling. Eos, 84(12): 111. DOI: 10.1029/2003EO120004

Reynolds, R. L., Reheis, M., Chavez, P., Hinkley, T., Tigges, R., Gary Clow, MacKinnon, D., Lamothe, P., Lancaster, N., Miller, M., Yount, J., Velasco, M., Sides, S., Soltesz, D., Meeker, G., Fulton, R., Belnap, J. 2003: Dust emission and deposition in the southwestern U.S.: Integrated field, remote sensing, and modeling studies to evaluate response to climatic variability and land use. In Sharhan, A. R., Wood, W. W., Goudie, A. S., Fowler, A., and Abdellatif, E. (eds.), Desertification in the Third Millennium. Lisse, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger, 271-282.

Gary Clow, Koci, B. 2002: A fast mechanical-access drill for polar glaciology, paleoclimatology, geology, tectonics, and biology. Memoirs National Institute Polar Research, spec. issue 56: 5-37.

Walsh, J. E., Doran, P. T., Priscu, J. C., Lyons, W. B., Andrew G. FountainDiane M. McKnight, Moorhead, D. L., Virginia, R. A., Wall, D. H., Gary Clow, Fritsen, C. H., McKay, C. P., Parsons, A. N. 2002: Climate change: Recent temperature trends in the Antarctic. Nature, 418, 292. DOI: 10.1038/418292a

Doran, P. T., McKay, C. P., Gary Clow, Dana, G. L., Andrew G. Fountain, Nylen, T., Lyons, W. B. 2002: Valley floor climate observations from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, 1986-2000. Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres, 107(D24): ACL 13-1–ACL 13-12. DOI: 10.1029/2001JD002045

Doran, P. T., Priscu, J. C., Lyons, W. B., Walsh, J. E., Andrew G. FountainDiane M. McKnight, Moorhead, D. L., Virginia, R. A., Wall, D. H., Gary Clow, Fritsen, C. H., McKay, C. P., Parsons, A. N. 2002: Antarctic climate cooling and terrestrial ecosystem response. Nature, 415(6871): 517-520. DOI: 10.1038/nature710

Bay, R. C., Price, P. B., Gary Clow, Gow, A. J. 2001: Climate logging with a new rapid optical technique at Siple Dome. Geophysical Research Letters, 28(24): 4635-4638. DOI: 10.1029/2001GL013763

Diamond, H., and 41 contributors, including, Gary Clow 2001: The United States' detailed national report on systematic observations for climate: United States National Global Climate Observing System (US-GCOS) program. Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, compiled by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 163 pp.

Clifford, S. M., Crisp, D., Fisher, D. A., Herkenhoff, K. E., Smrekar, S. E., Thomas, P. C., Wynn-Williams, D. D., Zurek, R. W., Barnes, J. R., Bills, B. G., Blake, E. W., Calvin, W. M., Cameron, J. M., Carr, M. H., Christensen, P. R., Clark, B. C., Gary Clow, Cutts, J. A., Dahl-Jensen, D., Durham, W. B., Fanale, F. P., Farmer, J. D., Forget, F., Gotto-Azuma, K., Grard, R., Haberle, R. M., Harrison, W., Harvey, R., Howard, A. D., Ingersoll, A. P., James, P. B., Kargel, J. S., Kieffer, H. H., Larsen, J., Lepper, K., Malin, M. C., McCleese, D. J., Murray, B., Nye, J. F., Paige, D. A., Platt, S. R., Plaut, J. J., Reeh, N., Rice, J. W., Smith, D. E., Stoker, C. R., Tanaka, K. L., Mosley-Thompson, E., Thorsteinsson, T., Wood, S. E., Zent, A., Zuber, M. T., Zwally, H. J. 2000: The state and future of Mars polar science and exploration. Icarus, 144(2): 210-242. DOI: 10.1006/icar.1999.6290

Dahl-Jensen, D., Mosegaard, K., Gundestrup, N., Gary Clow, Johnsen, S. J., Hansen, A. W., Balling, N. 1998: Past temperatures directly from the Greenland ice sheet. Science, 282(5387): 268-271. DOI: 10.1126/science.282.5387.268

Gary Clow 1998: Borehole Locations and Permafrost Depths, Alaska, USA. Digital database, National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology,

Gary Clow, Lachenbruch, A. H., Brewer, M. C. 1998: U.S. Geological Survey's Borehole Temperature Logs from Arctic Alaska, pre-1989. Digital database, USGS,

Cuffey, K. M., Gary Clow 1997: Temperature, accumulation, and ice sheet elevation in central Greenland through the last deglacial transition. Journal of Geophysical Research–Oceans, 102(C12): 26383-26396. DOI: 10.1029/96JC03981

Gary Clow, Saltus, R. W., Waddington, E. D. 1996: A new high-precision borehole temperature logging system used at GISP2, Greenland and Taylor Dome, Antarctica. Journal of Glaciology, 42: 576-584.

Gary Clow, Waddington, E. D. 1996: Acquisition of borehole temperature measurements from Taylor Dome and the Dry Valleys for paleoclimate reconstruction. Antarctic Journal of the United States, 31(2): 71-72.

Cuffey, K. M., Gary Clow, Alley, R. B., Stuiver, M., Waddington, E. D., Saltus, R. W. 1995: Large Arctic temperature change at the Wisconsin-Holocene glacial transition. Science, 270(5235), 455-458. DOI: 10.1126/science.270.5235.455

Lachenbruch, A. H., Sass, J. H., Gary Clow, Weldon, R. 1995: Heat flow at Cajon Pass, California, revisited. Journal of Geophysical Research–Solid Earth, 100(B2): 2005-2012. DOI: 10.1029/94JB02872

Moore, J. M., Gary Clow, Davis, W. L., Gulick, V. C., Janke, D. R., McKay, C. P., Stoker, C. R., Zent, A. P. 1995: The circum-Chryse region as a possible example of a hydrologic cycle on Mars: Geologic observations and theoretical evaluation. Journal of Geophysical Research–Planets, 100(E3): 5433-5447. DOI: 10.1029/94JE08205

Waddington, E. D., Morse, D. L., Alley, R. B., Bolzan, J. F., Hodge, S. M., Cutler, N. N., Schott-Hvidberg, C., Raymond, C. F., Gary Clow, Gundestrup, N. S., Jacobel, R. W., Cuffey, K., Dahl-Jensen, D., Anandakrishnan, S., Taylor, K. C. 1995: The role of glacier geophysics in the GISP2 ice core program. Arctic Research of the United States, Fall/Winter 1995: 10-19.

Gary Clow, Waddington, E. D., Gundestrup, N. S. 1995: High-precision temperature measurements in the GISP2 and GRIP boreholes. Arctic Research of the United States, Fall/Winter 1995: 44-47.

Gary Clow, Saltus, R. W., Waddington, E. D. 1995: High-precision temperature logging at GISP2, Greenland, May 1992. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-490, 24 pp.

Gary Clow, Lachenbruch, A. H. 1995: Permafrost temperatures and the changing climate. In Final Report of the Polar Research Program Strategies Workshop, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-247: 36-37.

McKay, C. P., Gary Clow, Andersen, D. T., Wharton, R. A., Jr. 1994: Light transmission and reflection in perennially ice-covered Lake Hoare, Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research–Oceans, 99(C10): 20427-20444. DOI: 10.1029/94JC01414

Saltus, R. W., Gary Clow 1994: Deconvolution of continuous borehole temperature logs: Algorithms and accuracies. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-254, 42 pp.

Waddington, E. D., Morse, D. L., Gary Clow 1994: Glacier geophysics at Taylor Dome, Year 4. Antarctic Journal of the United States, 29(5): 82-84.

Wharton, R. A., Jr., McKay, C. P., Gary Clow, Andersen, D. T. 1993: Perennial ice covers and their influence on Antarctic lake ecosystems. In Green, W. and Freidmann, E. I. (eds.), Lakes of the Dry Valleys. American Geophysical Union, Antarctic Research Series 59: 53-70.

Gary Clow 1992: The extent of temporal smearing in surface-temperature histories derived from borehole temperature measurements. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 98(2-4): 81-86. DOI: 10.1016/0031-0182(92)90189-C

Lucchitta, B. K., McEwen, A. S., Gary Clow, Geissler, P. E., Singer, R. B., Schultz, R. A., Squyres, S. W. 1992: The canyon system on Mars. In Kieffer, H. H., Jakosky, B. K., Snyder, C. W., and Matthews, M. S. (eds.), Mars. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press, 453-492.

Wharton, R. A., Jr., McKay, C. P., Gary Clow, Andersen, D. T., Simmons, G. M., Jr., Love, F. G. 1992: Changes in ice cover thickness and lake level of Lake Hoare, Antarctica: Implications for local climatic change. Journal of Geophysical Research–Oceans, 97(C3): 3503-3513.

Lindner, B. L., McKay, C. P., Gary Clow, Wharton, R. A. 1992: Computational modeling of Antarctic lake ice. In Murthy, T., Sackinger, W., and Wadhams, P. (eds.), Advances in Ice Technology. Southhampton, U.K.: Computational Mechanics Publications, 105-116.

Gary Clow, Pike, R. J. 1988: Calculation of crater dimensions from oblique images. In Vilas, F., Chapman, C. R., and Matthews, M. S. (eds.), Mercury. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press, 251-257.

Gary Clow 1987: Generation of liquid water on Mars through the melting of a dusty snowpack. Icarus, 72: 95-127.

Moore, H. J., Hutton, R. E., Gary Clow, Spitzer, C. R. 1987: Physical properties of the surface materials at the Viking lander sites on Mars. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1389, 222 pp.

Simmons, G. M., Jr., Wharton, R. A., Jr., McKay, C. P., Nedell, S. S., Gary Clow 1986: Sand/ice interactions and sediment deposition in perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes. Antarctic Journal of the United States, 21: 217-220.

McKay, C. P., Gary Clow, Wharton, R. A., Squyres, S. W. 1985: Thickness of ice on perennially frozen lakes. Nature, 313: 561-562. DOI: 10.1038/313561a0

Gary Clow 1985: Radiation-dominated snowmelt on Mars. NASA Technical Memorandum 87563: 335-336.

Pike, R. J., Spudis, P. D., Gary Clow 1985: Average spacing for rings of individual multi-ring basins is square root(2)*D. NASA Technical Memorandum 87563: 189-191.

Moore, H. J., Gary Clow, Hutton, R. E. 1982: A summary of Viking sample trench analyses for angles of internal friction and cohesions. Journal of Geophysical Research–Solid Earth, 87(B12): 10043-10050. DOI: 10.1029/JB087iB12p10043

Gary Clow 1982: Downward-travelling infrared flux at the Martian surface for past CO2/H2O atmospheres. NASA Technical Memorandum 85127: 271-273.

Pike, R. J., Gary Clow 1982: Geomorphology of craters on Mercury: First results from a new sample. NASA Technical Memorandum 85127: 120-122.

Carr, M. H., Gary Clow 1981: Martian channels and valleys: Their characteristics, distribution, and age. Icarus, 48: 91-117.

Evernden, J. F., Kohler, W. M., Gary Clow 1981: Seismic intensities of earthquakes of conterminous United States: Their prediction and interpretation. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1223, 56 pp.

Pike, R. J., Gary Clow 1981: Revised classification of terrestrial volcanoes and catalog of topographic dimensions, with new results on edifice volume. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 81-1038, 40 pp.

Pike, R. J., Gary Clow 1981: Numerical taxonomy of central volcanoes on the planets. NASA Technical Memorandum 84211: 138-140.

Gary Clow, Carr, M. H. 1980: Stability of sulfur slopes on Io. Icarus, 44: 268-279.

Gary Clow, Evernden, J. F. 1980: Prediction of seismic intensities on the Wasatch Front. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 80-801: 109-152.